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Growth of Nannochloropsis sp. Under Different Light Paths Using Light Emitting Diodes (LED) as Source of Light


December 2021 -  A study was carried out on flat panel photobioreators  to determine suitable light path for culturing Nannochloropsis at maximum density under illumination of light emitting diodes LED light source. The result showed that the photobioreators with shorter light path produced higher cell density. The shorter light path enables light to travels further into the culture as compared to the longer light path.  In addition this study also shows that LEDs is suitable and practical for  culture of Nannochloropsis in a photobioreactor

Full paper MFJ 



Effect of SirehMAX on the Immunity and Growth of Tilapia


01 November 2021 - This study was done to see the effect of herbal extract (SirehMAX) on the growth and immunity of tilapia in the lab. A total of 120 fish was divided into four groups with three replicates. Two feeding regimes were applied i.e, ad libitum and 3% fish body weight (3%BW). Each regime was fed either with commercial pellet or pellet coated with 1 ppm SirehMAX three times per week. The study was carried out for eight weeks, and the growth was measured fortnightly. After eight weeks, blood sample were acquired for immunology. The fish was observed for two weeks for any clinical and behavioral changes. At the end of the experiment, the fish was sampled for bacteria and immunology. The fish was observed for two weeks for any clinical and behavioral changes. At the end of the experiment, the fish was sampled for bacteria and immunology. The results showed that fish from SirehMAX group was free from bacteria, while the commercial feed group shows presence of Plesiomonas shigelloides in the final sampling. The fish fed with SirehMAX showed significant growth at the first four weeks, but insignificant thereafter, until the end of the experiment.


Application of Cinnamon essential oil In Overcoming Pasitic (Lernaea sp.) Infestation in Arowana Broodstock


01 June 2021 - This study was conducted on two species of Arowana, namely Highback Golden (HBG) and Malaysian Gold (MG) in Perak that suffered from the parasitic infection of Lernaea sp. and low larval survival rate (10-20%). The objective of this study was to increase the survival rate of juvenile arowana fish through application of commercial essential cinnamon oil (EOCIN) in broodstock pellets for 14 days. The first trial showed significant increase in survival rate from 10% to 60% in fish fed with EOCIN. A similar result was observed in the second trial for HBG; the production of larvae was increased from 33.3% (without EOCIN) to 66.7% (with EOCIN). The survival rate of larvae from broodstock fed with EOCIN was 94.2% for HBG and 92.3% for MG.


Survival and Growth of False Clownfish, Amphirion ocellaris for Mass Production


01 March 2021 - Marine ornamental fish trade is high in value and demand. About 10% of marine ornamental fishes is produced under captivity while others are wild. This study was conducted to develop techniques for breeding in the mass production. Live specimens were collected from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah. The fishes were then acclimatized and their behavior was closely observed to remove aggressive fishes and to study pair formation. Fishes were fed 3 times daily. Excess feed and debris were siphoned daily and water exchange(70%) carried out weekly. The pair fishes, then transferred to broodstock tank (24" x 16" x 16") with an earthen pot as a substrate for egg deposition. One day before hatching, eggs were transferred to rearing tanks (16" x 10" x 10"). The average egg incubation period is seven days with eggs dimension about 1 x 2.34 mm. On Day 0 of hatching, larvae were fed with rotifers till Day 21. Newly hatched Artemia were given from Day 7 till Day 28. Green water was also given from day 0 till day 28. Small pellet was introduced on Day 30. About 70% mortality rates were observed from Day 0 till Day 7. The larvae pass their critical stage after day 15. It was found that during the larval period from day 0 to day 9 of post hatch, water temperature plays a critical role in the survival rates of the larvae.



Heavy Metal Assessment in Water from Cockle Culture Areas, Kuala Selangor


January 2021 - The aim of the study is to assess the concerntration of selected heavy metals in waters
from cockle culture areas in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia. For this study eight(8) elements were selected"
due to their significant contribution to water pollution in Malaysia waters which are cadmium (Cd), 
chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), total arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn).

Seawater samples were collected from two main cockle culture areas in Selangor which are Kebun 
Kerang Kuala Selangor (KKKS), and Kebun Kerang Sabak Bernam (KKSB) from April to November 
2015.  In this study, Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used to measure 
the concerntration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, As, Se and Zn respectively.

The results showed in general, selected heavy metals concerntration were lower than Interim Malaysia
Marine Water Quality Standards and Criteria (IMQWS) set by the Department of Environmental Malaysia.

Please visit our Malaysian Fisheries Journal Vol.19, 2020 for full paper.


June 2020 - Aquarium Tunku Abdul Rahman(AkuaTAR) and DOF# Tuna Gallery is now temporarily closed due to Covid-19 pendamic until further notification.


Short Term Storage of Groupher's Sperm


January 2020 - Production of marine aquaculture has been increased year by year, but the problematic issue in broodstock quality (sperm, eggs, gamete) still remains.  In order to solve the problem, a sperm cryopreservation protocol was developed to supply sufficient gamete for the future. Sperm Cryopreservation and post thawing protocol are still in the improvision phase to reach sufficient grouper sperms stocks for short and long term preservation. The objective of this study is to find the best extender, storage method and dilution ratio for short storage sperm. An effective protocol was established by comparing the different solutions of the extender. The motility (MOT) between sperm diluted with extender and fresh sperm was compared and recorded daily.  The result indicated that the best dilution ratio sperm to the extender is 1:4. The motility of sperm in ASP lasts for 33 days for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and 23 days for tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). As a conclusion, using ASP as an extender with a ratio of 1:4 is the best protocol for short term sperm storage. 


Author: Khairuddin Mohamad, Sufian Mustafa, Nik Haiha Nik Yusoff and Zainoddin Jamri.


Fish Virology at Fish Health Research Center (NaFish)


January 2019 - Research on fish and shrimp virology at  NaFish has been started since late 1990's under the aquaculture unit. The research was done in collaboration with JIRCAS on WSSV in shrimp, and at the same time fish tissue culture lab (NaFish) was establishe in the year  2002. Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a disease caused by betanodavirus and being reported in more than 50 fish species worldwide (tropical and cold water). Infected fish typically shows abnormal swimming behavior, skin darkening, anorexia, lethargy and swim bladder hyperinflation. Histologically, VNN cause vacuolation of the fish nervous system such as brain and eyes. In collaboration with Veterinary Research Institute (VRI),  the first local VNN strain from imported bawal emas (Trichinotus blochii)  has been successfully  isolated  in the year 2006. Currently, two CPEs (cytopathic effec) have been confirmed as VNN and many others isolates found in fish tissue culture are still under investigation. In Malaysia, VNN is endemic and can be easily isolated from the healthy looking fish. The endemic state of disease will limit the strategy of controlling and prevention. At hatchery level,regular monitoring VNN in broodstocks and fry stocks is important to ensure they are free from the virus which can cause great losses. With the success of VSS viral isolation and identification, NaFish has taken further steps  in the research.


Collaboration between FRI and CMDV: The Development of Red Tilapia Hybrid Growth Marker


05 December 2018 -  Red tilapia is the second largest fish produced after catfish in Malaysia. However, the production of tilapia has been found to decrease each year, from 51, 554 mt (2012) to 35, 996 mt (2016). The decrease in tilapia production has recalled actions to improve fish management strategies and tilapia culture practices. Among them, is to identify genes that facilitate the acceleration of growth which will help to shorten the culture period thus would increase the profitability to the farmers. The growth of fish is affected by the endogenous factor such as stock, strain, and species which directly involved with the genetic component of the fish. Traits associated with fast and efficient growth have a major influence on animal production. Traditional phenotype-based selection through natural selection and selective breeding is typically used to select growth traits, however, it requires several generations to optimize genetics improvement. In contrast, molecular genetics requires relatively less time to identify genes and trait linked markers for selection trait of interest.  Thus the objective of this study is to seek for the possibility of using molecular technique via molecular markers in the genetics enhancement program of red tilapia in the genetics enhancement program of red tilapia hybrid. This is a collaboration project between Fisheries Research Institute (FRI) and Centre for Marker Discovery and Validation (CMDV), MARDI.  The finding from this study will contribute to the understanding of the role of specific DNA sequence and could be used as a basis for the FRI on the selective breeding program of red tilapia hybrid.

As a result, 10 novel SNPs markers that associate to high growth performance traits of red Malaysian tilapia hybrid was successfully developed from this project. This finding will help to increase the effectiveness and accuracy in the broodstock selection in the genetics enhancements program. However, a proper SOP need to be developed along the usage of this markers as the environmental effect especially feed intake and water quality will also affect the performance of the fish. Please contact Dr. Siti Norita Mohamad for more information.


Fisheries Mobile Information Package (FISHMiP)


February 2018 - Fisheries Reseach Institute Malaysia has been invented a device (FISHMiP) that can inform fisherman their fishing zone and bounderies between the states. ​This handheld  device FISHMiP is compatible with GARMIN GPS Map Series i.e., Garmin MONTANA 650, Garmin 64s, Garmin GPS Map 78s, Garmin DriveSmart 50LM ans etc. ​By using this device, the authorities can easily monitor fishing operation such as fishing at the gazetted areas, or accidentally entering neighbouring countries. We are seeking ​serious partners to invest in the project to commecialize the product. Please contact Mr. Hadzley for further information at 04-6263925/6.